Bohemia (what is now the Czech Republic) had developed a glassmaking industry as early as the eighth or ninth century, an industry that probably included the production of glass beads. The first glass manufactories were founded in the 14th century, their output continued to increase, and Bohemian glass became well known for its high quality. The glass bead industry began as a reaction by Bohemian stonecutters to Venetian competition, as the Venetians were making inexpensive imitations in glass of the garnets with which the stonecutters worked. This led to the development of “composition,” a formula consisting of silica, saltpeter, lead, and gold. When combined, they produced a deep translucent red glass that was perfectly suited to the imitation of garnets. An important 18th-century invention for the Bohemian bead industry was the twopart tong mold, which allowed for the easy shaping and perforation of glass beads. In the 19th century, glass beads became an important industry centered in Jablonec nad Nisou, and both production and trade of Bohemian beads grew quickly. As in Venice, a cottage industry developed in which canes were sent to home workers who employed the tong molds to make beads and then ground or fire-polished them in order to remove the mold seam. These long, heavy faceted beads were probably made in imitation of garnets or other red stones, such as carnelian. Their color and faceting re-create the materials and products that were made by the stonecutters of the region. Bohemia would continue to be a force in the production and distribution of glass beads throughout the world, and it was in constant competition with Venice.