During the late 1960s and early 1970s, the use of stained glass for decorative windows and signs became increasingly popular in the United States. However, American studio glass artists saw more artistic potential for this traditional medium. Because their new work went beyond conventional stained glass techniques, materials, and concepts, this category of two-dimensional glassworking became known as “flat” glass. Robert Kehlmann and other San Francisco Bay area artists, such as Paul Marioni and Narcissus Quagliata, have explored new ways of working with flat glass. In Composition XXXI, Kehlmann uses the leaded glass panel as a “canvas” for an abstract composition in color and light.