Humpen were large cylindrical glasses that held several quarts of beer. They were also some of the most popular enameled drinking vessels. Martin Luther, commenting on the custom of draining Humpen in a single gulp, called them “fools’ glasses” and “obscenely large welcome cups.” Most of these glasses were made in Bohemia, Germany, and Austria from the mid-16th to 18th centuries. The decoration on this fine Humpen commemorated the Peace of Westphalia (1649). The treaty ended the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648), which established France as the most powerful nation on the Continent. The scene shows the Holy Roman Emperor joining the hands of the king of France and the queen of Sweden, surrounded by kneeling ecclesiastics and laymen, beneath a heavenly assembly. The vessel also features inscribed biblical quotations and a prayer of thanks.