All About Glass
All About Glass
This is your resource for exploring various topics in glass: delve deeper with this collection of articles, multimedia, and virtual books all about glass. Content is frequently added to the area, so check back for new items. If you have a topic you'd like to see covered, send us your suggestion. If you have a specific question, Ask a Librarian at our Rakow Research Library.
A type of translucent yellow-shading-to-pink Art Glass made by the Mt. Washington Glass Company in New Bedford, Massachusetts, between 1885 and about 1895. Burmese Vase with Lacelike Decoration
A term frequently used to mean all pre-Roman and ancient Roman glass.
A charm believed to protect the wearer against evil or to bring good fortune. Amulet with Turtle
The technique of grinding shallow decoration with a wheel or some other device. The decorated areas are left unpolished. Queen Tomyris with the Head of Cyrus
(Italian, “excavation”) A technique involving the application, to the surface of an object, of substances that, when heated to about 1470°F (800°C), fuse and create an effect similar to weathering, thereby imitating glass from an archeological excavation.
Potassium carbonate. It is an alternative to soda as a source of alkali in the manufacture of glass.
Sodium sesquicarbonate, originally obtained mainly from the Wadi el-Natrun, northwest of Cairo. It was commonly used by Roman glassmakers as the alkali constituent of batch.
(from Greek) The name sometimes given to globular or pear-shaped objects with a narrow neck and mouth. The function of these objects is uncertain. The word was originally applied to a device, invented in the second century B.C., in which a closed, water-filled vessel, when heated, was made to
A homogeneous material with a random, liquidlike (noncrystalline) molecular structure. The manufacturing process requires that the raw materials be heated to a temperature sufficient to produce a completely fused melt, which, when cooled rapidly, becomes rigid without crystallizing.
The process of acid-etching a trademark or signature into glass after it has been annealed, using a device that resembles a rubber stamp to apply the acid.
(German, “tapeworm glass”) A variety of Stangenglas decorated with a notched trail wound spirally, like a worm, around the wall. Glasses of this type were made in Germany between the 15th and 17th centuries.
(German) A type of drinking glass, similar to a Römer, but with a funnel-shaped mouth. It was made in Germany and the Low Countries in the 16th and 17th centuries.
A type of Art Glass developed in the 1920s by Frederick Carder (1863-1963) at Steuben Glass Works in Corning, New York.
(1) Raw glass or pieces of broken glass from a cooled melt, intended for use as an ingredient of batch; (2) scrap glass intended for recycling.
A substance (such as manganese dioxide or cerium oxide) used to remove or offset the greenish or brownish color in glass that results from (1) iron impurities in the batch or (2) iron or other impurities in the pot or elsewhere in the production process.
Inexpensive, machine-pressed American glassware made between about 1920 and 1950.
A genuine object that has been altered or “improved” for the purpose of enhancing its value.
A term used to describe a very wide variety of 19th-century European and American decorative glass.
The physical and chemical process of eliminating bubbles from the melt by raising the temperature to make the glass more fluid and adding fining agents such as arsenic and antimony.
The process of (1) heating the batch in order to fuse it into glass by exposing it to the required temperature in a crucible or pot, (2) reheating unfinished glassware while it is being worked, or (3) reheating glassware in a muffle to fuse enamel or gilding. The melting of the batch may require a
The initial phase of melting batch. For many modern glasses, the materials must be heated to a temperature of about 2450°F (1400°C). This is followed by a maturing period, during which the molten glass cools to a working temperature of about 2000°F (1100°C).
A generic name for glass (e.g., borosilicate glass) with a relatively low coefficient of expansion. Soft glass (e.g., soda-lime glass), by contrast, has a relatively high coefficient of expansion.
(German, “court wine-cellar glass”) A drinking glass used in the buttery of a German court.
(French, “inserted”) The process of applying two layers of decoration, the first being covered with a skin of glass that serves as the surface for the second.
A refractory powder that can be mixed with water and applied to shelves in a kiln or to mandrels to prevent glass or glaze from sticking to them. This is also known as bat wash.
(from Greek) A pitcher with a tall, narrow neck and a wide body.
A type of interlaced ornament consisting of foliage and strapwork, popular in Germany and Bohemia in the 18th century.
Glass containing layers of different colors. Decorative effects can be obtained by revealing the contrasting colors by acid etching, carving, cutting, or engraving.