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Journal of Glass Studies, Vol. 54

The 13 articles in this volume include an investigation of a Bohemian drinking glass that dates to 1594, the discovery of hundreds of fragments of ninth-century glass objects found in Great Moravia, a report on a Sasanian glass bowl formerly in the treasury of a cathedral at Freising (Bavaria), new research and reanalysis of a collection of 10th-century glasses from Tunisia, and Late Bronze Age glass production on Rhodes, Greece. The "Notes" section contains brief accounts of a Bronze Age mosaic glass fragment, newly discovered (2011) cage cup fragments made from dichroic glass, and a medieval enameled beaker from Eastern Crimea, Ukraine.

Table of Contents and Abstracts

“Stone ... That Flows”: Faience and Glass as Man-Made Stones in EgyptPaul T. Nicholsonp. 11

The idea that faience and glass were substitutes for semiprecious stones in ancient Egypt and the Near East is not a new one. However, it is argued here that in an era before the processes of rock formation were understood, these materials may actually have been regarded as types of stone that were made by humans rather than by nature. While the users of faience and glass knew that these products were man-made, they may not have regarded them as substantially different from the natural substances. The workers in these materials may have been regarded as workers in stone of an artificial kind, and some of the earliest methods of working glass and stone may have been the same.

Late Bronze Age Glass Production on Rhodes, GreecePavlos Triantafyllidis and Ioannis Karatasiosp. 25

A substantial number of glass artifacts, mainly beads, have been found among the rich burial offerings of the Mycenaean cemeteries in the municipalities of Ialysos, Kamiros, and Southern Rhodes. A chunk of raw glass and a stone mold for manufacturing jewelry, uncovered at the settlement of Trianda, near Ialysos, offer strong evidence for a secondary glass workshop on Rhodes during the late phases of the Mycenaean period.

Chemical analysis of the translucent turquoise glass chunk was carried out by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). The chunk is a soda-lime-silica glass with elevated potash and magnesium, and its color is attributed to the use of copper. The composition is similar to that of translucent turquoise glasses from Tell Brak, Syria.

The proposed Mesopotamian origin of this glass chunk from Rhodes is very significant. It should be viewed within the broader context of intensive commercial activity that took place in the Aegean, and especially on Rhodes, during the 14th and 13th centuries B.C.

Blowing Glass from Chunks Instead of Molten Glass: Archaeological and Literary Evidence E. Marianne Sternp. 33

A glassblower preparing to blow an object usually begins by dipping the blowpipe into molten glass in order to collect a gather of glass on the tip of the pipe. Archaeological and literary evidence indicates that this was not always the normal procedure in antiquity. The peculiar bicolored design of several blown vessels dating to the first century A.D. shows that glassblowers throughout the Roman Empire started their pieces by attaching one or more chunks of solid glass to the tip of the blowpipe. This practice is confirmed by two ancient Greek poems describing glassblowers at work.

The fact that the ancient Greek technical term for gathering preserves a reference to solid glass suggests that picking up solid chunks of glass was the original method of gathering. The finds from a mid-first-century workshop at Avenches show the type of furnace and equipment to be expected in a workshop operated by glassblowers who routinely heated chunks of glass individually on the tip of the pipe. The gathering of molten glass did not become customary until sometime in the second half of the first century. Both practices had advantages and disadvantages.

A Sasanian Glass Bowl Formerly at Freising (In German)Ingeborg Kruegerp. 47

A major piece in the treasury of the cathedral at Freising (Bavaria) was a bowl for holy water that was said to have been made of one huge chrysolite. It had a medieval mount of gilded silver, and it was thought to have been donated by Empress Beatrix about 1160. The bowl disappeared at the beginning of the 19th century.

Carl Johan Lamm recognized that the bowl must have been made of glass. However, in his Mittelalterliche Gläser und Steinschnittarbeiten ... (v. 2, 1929, pl. 52), he illustrated it with a misleading drawing, based on a simplified copy of an older engraving. That engraving, in a book from 1724, and a drawing from 1796 give a better idea of the bowl. It was shallow, with large countersunk double facets and smaller oval facets. This decoration seems to have been typical for late Sasanian glasses. The so-called chrysolite bowl from Freising thus appears to have been one of very few Sasanian glass vessels that came to Europe during the Middle Ages.

The Glass of Great Moravia: Vessel and Window Glass, and Small ObjectsLuděk Galuška, Jiří Macháček, Karol Pieta, and Hedvika Sedláčkováp. 61

Hundreds of fragments of ninth-century glass objects (including three complete vessels, windowpanes, and smoothers) were found on the sites of Great Moravian hill forts in Slovakia (Bojná), in Moravia (Mikulčice, Olomouc, Pohansko at Břeclav, Pohansko at Nejdek, and Uherské Hradiště–Sady) and in the royal grave in Kolín, Bohemia. The funnel and globular beakers, as well as the smoothers, represent contacts between Great Moravia and the Carolingian empire. Fragments of lamps, which were the basic type of Byzantine glass, can be associated with the arrival of Cyril and Methodius from Thessaloniki. Among the fragments are soda-lime glasses, early wood-ash glasses, and vessels and smoothers made of lead glass.

Carolingian Glass from Staré Město–Sady (Moravia, Czech Republic)Karl Hans Wedepohlp. 93

This article discusses chemical investigations of 20 elements in six soda-lime glasses, two early wood-ash glasses, and one lead glass from Moravia (Czech Republic). Chemical similarity to Carolingian wood-ash glass from western Europe suggests that the glasses collected in Staré Město–Sady were imports.

Of special importance are two silver-stained soda-lime glasses (a windowpane and a beaker) that were produced in the second half of the first millennium A.D. They are only the second find of early medieval silver-stained glass in central Europe; the first was at Zalavár, Hungary (as reported in the Journal of Glass Studies, v. 46, 2004, pp. 85–104).

A Collection of 10th-Century Glasses from Ṣabra al-Manṣūriya (In French)Danièle Foyp. 97

New research conducted at Ṣabra al-Manṣūriya (Qairouan, Tunisia), the second Fatimid capital of Ifriqiya, involved the reanalysis of all of the archaeological materials discovered there since 1920. This article presents a homogeneous glass assemblage dating to the 10th century. It consists of colorless luxury glass decorated by relief, slant, facet, and linear cutting, as well as abraded and luster-painted glass (orange and polychrome luster applied to deep blue or other strongly colored glass). These may have been made in Iran or Iraq, while vessels that were mold-blown and decorated with pincers may have been produced in western Islamic workshops.

The most common forms are flasks of various shapes and sizes. Miniature glass cosmetic containers and other flasks are products of a local workshop, but the bottles of dark blue glass with narrow, cracked-off rims are considered to be of Egyptian origin.

Eastern influences are evident. They include Ṣabra al-Manṣūriya palace architecture and decoration (stuccoes, window glass), as well as glass and glazed ceramic ware (opaque turquoise glass and glaze).

A Relief-Cut Bowl from Besalú (Girona, Spain)Alberto Velasco and David Whitehousep. 119

A glass bowl in the Museu d’Art in Girona, Spain, is decorated with two pairs of relief-cut birds. The bowl, from the church of Sant Vincenç in Besalú, northeastern Catalonia, has been attributed to a workshop in al-Andalus or Iran in the ninth or 10th century. Comparison with some 300 examples of relief-cut glass believed to have been made in Western Asia or Egypt suggests that the bowl was not made in either of those regions. It seems more likely that it originated farther west, perhaps in al-Andalus or the Maghreb.

A possible context for its removal to northeastern Spain is provided by the capture and plunder of Córdoba in 1010 (which made portable objects widely available), and the promotion of a new diocese at Besalú by Counts Miró Bonfill and Bernat Tallaferro between 1017 and 1020 (which included donations to churches).

“HOLA WOHER MIT DER LEIMSTANGEN”: A Bird-Catcher Humpen in Enameled Glass (In German)Johanna Cremerp. 127

This article investigates the iconography and use of a Bohemian drinking glass known as the Vogelfängerhumpen. Dated 1594, the glass is decorated with the enameled images of three bird catchers. Comparisons to prints, literary texts, and other enameled glasses of the period demonstrate that the older male and female bird catchers symbolize folly and human vice. These figures embody numerous vices, which are gradually revealed—and become progressively more sinful—upon closer examination. The young female bird catcher and her reflection in the mirror serve a moralizing function by appealing, ironically, to the self-knowledge and reason of the viewer.

Because of its simultaneously allegorical and erotic iconography, the Vogelfängerhumpen occupies a special position in the history of German enameled glass. Its erotic significance is conveyed solely through the bird catchers and not through nude figures. The original viewers of the Vogelfängerhumpen would have been acquainted with the motif of the bird catcher and its connotations, and would therefore have belonged to a wealthy, educated elite. It is difficult for a modern viewer to experience this remarkable object as its intended audience would have.

Bottles and Jars: Utilitarian French Containers from the Beginning of the 18th Century to the Beginning of the 19th Century: Technical and Social Aspects (In French)Catherine Losierp. 151

Utilitarian glass containers (wine and other small bottles) are regularly found on 18th-century French colonial archaeological sites. While 18th-century glass bottles have a very consistent shape, some significant changes, both in the manufacturing process and in the way the bottles were used by consumers, occurred during this period. This article combines archaeological and historical information about 18th- to early 19th-century French glass bottles in an attempt to better understand these objects, their production, and the social practices associated with them. It is interesting to note that only one shape of French wine bottle is found on 18th-century archaeological sites, while there were many glass production sites in France at that time. Using chemical analyses, this paradox is addressed.

Venetian Beadmaking as Practiced in Austria in the 18th Century (In Italian)Paolo Zecchinp. 181

In the 18th century, the high cost of mirrors and beads made in Venice encouraged foreigners to persuade Venetians to risk punishment by setting up factories abroad. This article focuses on workshops established by Venetians at Graz and Innsbruck, Austria, between 1745 and 1768. Using documents in the Archivio di Stato, Venice, the author traces the activities of numerous Muranese glassmakers and Venetian margariteri and perleri (who made glass beads) abroad and the measures taken by the government of Venice to compel them to come home.

Twenty-Three Assorted Cristallo Goblets: The Table Glass of Count Tadini (In Italian)Teresa Medicip. 197

The glass collection of Accademia Tadini in Lovere (Bergamo, northern Italy) consists of a set of drinking glasses that was formerly among the household goods of Count Luigi Tadini (1745–1829), founder of the institution. This article, which combines documentary evidence with the surviving material, attempts to reconstruct this glass service, which was used by an aristocratic family in the 18th and 19th centuries. Implications concerning the style of dining are also explored.

The Glass Painters Samuel Mohn and Carl von Scheidt (In German)Susanne Netzerp. 215

This article is concerned with transparent enamel painting on German hollowware of the early 19th century. Using unpublished sources, it clarifies the relationship between the painters Gottlob Samuel Mohn (1762–1815) and Carl von Scheidt (1791–after 1834). Their lives are considered against the background of turmoil during the Napoleonic period, which made it difficult to distribute luxury ware in Germany. Both painters seem to have been capable chemists and technicians. The division of labor within the Mohn workshop remains somewhat puzzling. The signature “C. Mohn,” which has been interpreted as referring to the Mohn shop, is now thought to indicate the work of von Scheidt, Mohn’s stepson, following Mohn’s death. New biographical information also supplies a number of motifs from this workshop, some of which have an additional patriotic meaning.

Notesp. 239

A Fragment of Bronze Age Mosaic Glass
Dated Glass Finds from the Island of Nisyros, Dodecanese, Greece
New Fragments of Dichroic Cage Cups from Dülük Baba Tepesi / Doliche, Turkey
An Unrecorded Fragment of a “Paphos” Bottle
Zu den „Smaragden“ auf dem Halberstädter Tafelreliquiar
A Medieval Enameled Beaker from the Staryi Krym Area (Eastern Crimea, Ukraine)
The Gernheim Glasshouse: Early Industrial Glassmaking in Westphalia (1812–1877)
John Biddle, Apsley Pellatt, and the Portland Vase
Les Hommes noirs, a Dreyfusard vase parlant by Emile Gallé and Victor Prouvé
Tiffany Glass and Fridolin Kretschmann
Corning Museum Makes Major Additions to Glass, Library Collections
Archaeologists Share 2012 Rakow Grant
Rüdiger Becksmann (1939–­2012)
Raymond F. Errett (1936–2012)
Benjamin Walter Heineman Sr. (1914–2012)
Cesare Moretti (1932–2012)
Axel von Saldern (1923–2012)
Veronica Tatton-Brown (1944–2012)

Contributorsp. 235
Note to Authors and Readersp. 308
Museum Publicationsp. 310
Abstractsp. 315

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