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Journal of Glass Studies, Vol. 60

The Journal of Glass Studies is an annual publication of The Corning Museum of Glass that contains articles and notes of a scholarly nature on the art, history, and technology of glass, dating from ancient times up to the mid-20th century.

Volume 60 (2018) includes articles about a Roman bottle fragment from the village of Veranes, a cluster analysis of glass beads from a Viking-Age settlement using the Munsell Color System, Islamic glass objects recovered from a 10th-century shipwreck, 13th- and 14th-century European enameled beakers, Johannes Hudde’s flameworked microscope lenses, and reverse-painted buttons from the Waldes Collection, to name a few. The complete contents as well as the abstracts of each article are below.

Table of Contents and Abstracts

Eastern European Enamels of the Bryansk Hoard: Manufacturing Technology and Possible OriginOlga Rumyantsevap. 11

The Bryansk hoard, dating to the late second and third centuries and found in the southwestern part of central Russia, offers an outstanding assortment of eastern European enameled objects. This style of barbarian enamels spread throughout the Baltic region and into some areas of eastern Europe, beginning after the mid-second century. The manufacturing technology of at least the polychrome enameled items from the hoard strongly suggests the participation of provincial Roman craftsmen in the production of such jewelry, despite the distribution area and a very barbarian appearance.

Fragmento de botella con inscripción procedente de la villa romana de Veranes (Asturias, España) (In Spanish)Javier Salido Domínguez and Belén Madariaga Garcíap. 25

In this article, the authors analyze a fragment of a glass bottle from the Roman villa of Veranes (Asturias, Spain) that has an engraved inscription. Based on a study of the characteristics, epigraph, and context of the glass, they have determined the typology and purpose of the vessel from which the fragment came, as well as its manner of production in relation to similar glass items found in the Iberian Peninsula and other Roman regions. The message conveyed by the vessel encourages the owner to enjoy life and pre­sents an ideal of aristocratic life—the type of message often found in scenes of lavish banquets.

Colors of the Viking Age: A Cluster Analysis of Glass Beads from HedebyMatthew C. Delvauxp. 41

This article examines a sample of 1,584 glass beads from the Viking-Age settlement, harbor, and cemetery of Hedeby, Germany. By designating Munsell colors for each bead and performing cluster analysis on the mapped colors, it is possible to discern how the Viking-Age inhabitants of Hedeby perceived and used color. This analysis suggests that glass beads were used differently in different contexts, with color playing an apparently determinative role in bead selection. The colors derived from this analysis correspond to results obtained in other studies of Viking-Age material and linguistic evidence, affirming the validity of this approach and buttressing the importance of archaeological glass.

Cirebon: Islamic Glass from a 10th-Century Shipwreck in the Java SeaCarolyn Swan Needellp. 69

Glass objects recovered from the late 10th-century Cirebon shipwreck in the Java Sea of Indonesia offer a rare glimpse into the movement of Islamic glass goods in the Indian Ocean trading network. The cargo provides scholars of glass with a closely dated vessel assemblage that includes generic types as well as more sophisticated examples of Islamic glassware, in addition to raw glass chunks and glass beads. It includes an assortment of vessel types, but it is dominated by bottles ranging from large and roughly made containers to smaller and more refined vials, flasks, and ewers. Many of the vessels are outstanding examples of the glassworker’s craft, and several are unique pieces, including fish-shaped vessels of emerald-green glass with wheel-cut and applied details. A typological overview of the objects aboard the ship is presented, together with a discussion of the probable provenance, pattern of movement, and ultimate destination of the glass cargo.

The Sacro Catino in Genoa: Analytical and Technological Investigations of a Unique Glass VesselMarco Verità, Laura Speranza, Simone Porcinai, and Daniele Angellottop. 115

The restoration of the Sacro Catino of Genoa at the laboratories of the Opificio delle Pietre Dure in Florence afforded a unique opportunity to investigate one of the most outstanding translucent green glasses that survives. Its origin is still being debated among scholars. Before restoration, the pieces of the bowl were examined to obtain information on its forming technique. Non-invasive compositional analysis by portable X-ray fluorescence was performed, together with micro-invasive quantitative chemical analysis on a minute fragment by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis, with a view to identifying the type of glass and the coloring technique. A possi­ble date and provenance for this object are suggested by comparison with available compositional databases.

Die europäischen emailbemalten Becher des 13./14. Jahrhunderts:Eine Zusammenfassung zum Forschungsstand (In German)Ingeborg Kruegerp. 129

Research on medieval European glasses with enam­eled decoration has continued for more than 100 years. This article summarizes the known facts on all the aspects of this group, starting with an updated distribution map. Many new finds have expanded the range of motifs in the decoration and permit us to place these glasses in the context of contemporaneous objects of applied art.

In addition to examples that are clearly part of a large series, there are individual pieces and small subgroups with less common motifs. The diversity of the decoration indicates that such glasses were probably produced, not exclusively in Venice/Murano, but also elsewhere in Mediterranean countries and possibly also north of the Alps, where the majority of fragments have been found.

The Glass Tiles from Saint-Sauveur (Burgundy, France)Line Van Wersch, Bernard Gratuze, François Mathis, Myrtho Bonnin, David Strivay, Henrique Da Mota Rocha, and Christian Sapinp. 163

Eight glass tiles from Saint-Sauveur in Burgundy, which are considered to be of early medieval date, were investigated. These tiles, which are in a good state of preservation, are 10 centimeters square and nearly two centimeters thick. They are made of dark glass with red and white glass inlays. These glass tiles have often been compared with those from the early medieval monastery of Corvey in Germany. However, because they lack an archaeological context, their date is uncertain.

PIXE-PIGE and LA-ICP-MS analyses revealed a wood-ash glass composition, close to that of High Lime Low Alkali (HLLA) glass dating from the 14th century and later. The authors’ trace analyses confirm the more recent dating because the elements associated with cobalt reveal sources used only from the 16th century.

Chemical Analyses of Glasses Found in Cesspits during Archaeological Excavations in the Salm Palace, Prague, Czech RepublicŠárka Křížová, Gabriela Blažková, and Roman Skálap. 183

Twenty-seven samples of transparent vessel glass fragments acquired during archaeological research at the Salm Palace in Prague were collected from two cesspits, marked as 22/23 and 23. Cesspit 22/23, which was richer in finds, can be dated from 1575 to 1800, while the archaeological finds from Cesspit 23 fall into the period from 1550 to 1700.

The samples were analyzed using EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. Twenty-six of them correspond chemically to potassium-rich glasses, and the remaining sample corresponds to soda-ash glass. The potash and wood-ash glasses were produced locally, whereas chemical composition and appearance identify the soda-ash glass as an imported item. Three major groups can be distinguished using principal component analysis: soda-ash glass, potash glass, and wood-ash glass. The studied samples differ from glasses of the same date from Germany, Belgium, and Portugal, as well as from medieval Czech glasses.

Johannes Hudde and His Flameworked Microscope LensesMarvin Bolt, Tiemen Cocquyt, and Michael Koreyp. 207

Although Antoni van Leeuwenhoek has rightly earned his reputation as the founder of microbiology and the maker of fine simple microscopes, it was a contemporaneous and largely unknown mid-17th-century politician whose lenses prompted van Leeuwenhoek’s work. In fact, Johannes Hudde’s flameworked globular lenses inspired numerous Dutch scholars to explore the tiny worlds to which these lenses provided high-magnification access. These lenses were easily and quickly made, requiring little training or expertise, as the authors themselves demonstrate. They explore the origins and contexts of Hudde’s lenses, and compare their performance to that of van Leeuwenhoek’s more famous examples. Along the way, they assess the optical properties of flameworked and ground lenses in light of the tasks they were targeted to address, and identify an expected setting for the emergence of Hudde’s flameworked, rather than ground, lenses.

I rapporti tra Venezia e l’Inghilterra in campo vetrario nel Seicento (In Italian)Paolo Zecchinp. 223

The National Archive of Venice contains some documents pertaining to Muranese glassworkers who traveled to England, beginning in 1620. These craftsmen instructed English glassworkers, and the rise of the local glass industry eventually led to a ban on imports of glass from Venice. However, as reported by the Venetian ambassadors in London, glass made in England was more expensive and less refined, and it also required the use of considerable quantities of wood, which was not abundant.

Producers such as Sir Robert Mansell and the duke of Buckingham turned their attention to the manufacture of sheets of glass for mirrors, which they could make easily and inexpensively. They could save additional money by importing such sheets from Mura­nese glassworkers. These exchanges were forbidden by Venetian law, but glassworkers often evaded the restrictions. Glassworkers from Altare (in addition to those from Venice) went to work in England as George Ravenscroft began his production of flint glass.

Reverse-Painted Buttons from the Waldes CollectionEva Rydlová and Kateřina Hruškováp. 235

Since 1978, the Waldes Collection of dress fasteners and clothing accessories has been housed in the Museum of Glass and Jewelry in Jablonec nad Nisou, Czech Republic. Among the 5,943 items in the collection, there are 3,781 buttons made of various materials.

This article focuses on the special group of “minia­ture” buttons made in France between 1770 and 1900. These buttons, consisting of a metal base and flat or convex glass fastened in a collet, were severely damaged while being stored in a damp environment. Twenty-three of these buttons underwent conservation treatment. They were opened, which enabled the conservators to describe the construction and decorative techniques of buttons with reverse-painted glasses, in combination with engraving and miniatures on ivory.

Two examples of conservation treatments are included in the article to illustrate different approaches applied to severely damaged buttons.

18th- and 19th-Century Scottish Laboratory Glass: Assessment of Chemical Composition in Relation to Form and FunctionCraig J. Kennedy, Tom Addyman, K. Robin Murdoch, and Maureen E. Youngp. 253

Glassware used in the laboratories at the University of Edinburgh in the 18th and 19th centuries was analyzed using portable X-ray fluorescence. The samples came from two sources: the Playfair Collection, an assortment of vessels and equipment currently in the care of the National Museums Scotland, and excavations at the university’s Old College Quadrangle.

A high degree of commonality was observed between the Playfair and quadrangle samples. High-lead glasses contained over 30-percent lead oxide, along with small amounts of arsenic and potassium. High-calcium glasses contained over 20-percent calcium, alongside magnesium, aluminum, strontium, iron, titanium, and sulfur. Moderate-lead glasses contained less than 25-percent lead and also strontium and iron, which were not observed in the high-lead glasses, indicating that cullet from another glass type may have been used in their manufacture.

High levels of lead were found in items that require thermal stability and a high degree of transparency. High levels of calcium were seen in vessels that may have been used to hold and store chemicals, requiring a high degree of chemical stability.

These items suggest that Scottish glassmakers were capable of producing high-quality items of a relatively uncommon nature, using unusual ingredients in the melt.

Etablissements Gallé and the Industrial Mold-Blown or “Relief” Series of the 1920sSamuel Provostp. 269

The history of the Etablissements Gallé after 1918, under the management of Paul Perdrizet, is often regarded as the mere industrial exploitation of the simplest of the glassmaking techniques perfected more than a decade earlier by the founder of the company, Emile Gallé. But among the most popular Gallé series from this period, the so-called mold-blown and acid-etched vases and lamps stand out as a major attempt to introduce some changes borrowed from the common glass industry. Recently discovered archives allow us to identify the designers behind this innovation and to explain why it remained both limited in scope and short-lived.

Notesp. 303

Two Glass Beads from Wisad Pools in the Jordanian Black Desert
Gold-Band Glass Fragments from Aquileia: Indicators of Production?
A Medusa Glass Medallion from Vettweiß (District of Düren), Germany
A Lost Cage Cup Fragment in the Bartholdy Collection in Rome
An Unnoticed Early Roman Garland Bowl from Kourion
Additional Early Roman Blown Jugs in the East
“A Collection for Scholars and Scientists”: The Moritz Sobernheim Collection of Ancient Glass
Corning Museum Adds Major Works to Glass, Library Collections
Corning Museum Introduces Whitehouse Research Residencies
Four Researchers to Share 2018 Rakow Grant
Ludwig R. Berger (1933–2017)
Jay R. Doros (1926–2018)
Maud Spaer (1929–2018)

Contributorsp. 295
Note to Authors and Readersp. 348
Museum Publicationsp. 350
Abstractsp. 357

Publication Year: 

Journal of Glass Studies, v. 60