All About Glass

All About Glass

This is your resource for exploring various topics in glass: delve deeper with this collection of articles, multimedia, and virtual books all about glass. Content is frequently added to the area, so check back for new items. If you have a topic you'd like to see covered, send us your suggestion. If you have a specific question, Ask a Glass Question at our Rakow Research Library.

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Ancient glass
Glass Dictionary Term

A term frequently used to mean all pre-Roman and ancient Roman glass.

Annagelb
Glass Dictionary Term

(German) Two types of glass colored by adding uranium oxide to the batch. Annagelb is yellow, and Annagrün is green. They were developed by Josef Riedel (1816-1894), who named them for his wife, Anna, and they were made from 1834. Annagrün annagelbs annagruns Uranium glass

Annealing
Glass Dictionary Term

The process of slowly cooling a completed object in an auxiliary part of the glass furnace, or in a separate furnace. This is an integral part of glassmaking because if a hot glass object is allowed to cool too quickly, it will be highly strained by the time it reaches room temperature; indeed, it

Applied decoration
Glass Dictionary Term

Heated glass elements (such as canes and trails) applied during manufacture to a glass object that is still hot, and either left in relief or marvered until they are flush with the surface. See also Marquetry and Pick-up decoration. applied decorations Marquetry Pick-up decoration Vase with Applied

Appliqué
Glass Dictionary Term

In glassworking, a bit of hot glass, usually small and disk-shaped, attached to the surface of an object for decorative purposes. Appliqués can be decorated by pressing them in a mold before they are attached, or they can be stamped after they are attached. appliques Applique

Arabesque
Glass Dictionary Term

(1) In Islamic art, an intricate pattern of interlaced ornament consisting of curvilinear stems and tendrils that terminate in leaves; (2) in Renaissance and later European art, a pattern of interlaced curvilinear stems, scrolls, and leaves, sometimes containing animal motifs. Vase

Argand lamp
Glass Dictionary Term

An oil-burning lamp with a glass chimney, named for the Swiss physicist and inventor Aimé Argand (1750-1803), who invented the tubular wick burner in 1782. Argand lamps are efficient because the tubular wick feeds oxygen to the flame and the chimney increases the draft. argand lamps 2 Argand Lamps

Art Deco
Glass Dictionary Term

From French, Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, an exhibition in Paris in 1925. A style of design that originated in the 1920s and was popular in western Europe and the United States in the 1930s. Art Deco is distinguished by simple, streamlined shapes and

Art Glass
Glass Dictionary Term

(1) Several types of glass with newly developed surface textures, shaded colors, or casing, made in the United States from about 1870 and in Europe between about 1880 and 1900; (2) more generally, especially when written “art glass,” any ornamental glassware made since the mid-19th century. Royal

Almorraja
Glass Dictionary Term

(Spanish), almorratxa (Catalan) A rose water sprinkler with many spouts, made in northern Spain between the 16th and 18th centuries. Almorratxa

Amberina
Glass Dictionary Term

A type of Art Glass that varies in color from amber to ruby or purple on the same object. This shaded effect is due to the presence of gold in the batch. The object is amber when it emerges from the lehr, but partial reheating causes the affected portion to become red or purple. Amberina, developed

Amen glass
Glass Dictionary Term

A rare type of English wineglass with a drawn stem. The bowl is decorated by diamond-point engraving with verses from the Jacobite hymn followed by the word “Amen,” and with emblems associated with the Jacobite uprising of 1715. Jacobite glass The Mesham Amen Goblet

Amphora
Glass Dictionary Term

(from Latin) A jar with two handles. amphoras Flagon with Two Handles (Amphora)

Amphoriskos
Glass Dictionary Term

(from Greek, “small amphora”) A small jar with two handles, used for perfume or toilet oil in the pre-Roman and Roman periods. Cosmetic Bottle (Amphoriskos)

Alabaster glass
Glass Dictionary Term

A type of translucent white glass, similar to opal glass, first produced in Bohemia in the 19th century. In the 1920s, Frederick Carder (1863- 1963) introduced alabaster glass at Steuben Glass Works in Corning, New York. Carder’s alabaster glass has an iridescent finish made by spraying the object

Alabastron
Glass Dictionary Term

(from Greek), alabastrum (from Latin) A small bottle or flask for perfume or toilet oil, usually with a flattened rim, a narrow neck, a cylindrical body, and two small handles. Alabastrum Perfume Bottle (Alabastron) with Gold Rim

Ale glass
Glass Dictionary Term

A type of English drinking glass for ale or beer. Ale glasses, first made in the 17th century, have a tall and conical cup, a stem, and a foot. They may be enameled, engraved, or gilded with representations of hops or barley. Ale Glass

Alembic
Glass Dictionary Term

(from Arabic al-anbiq, “the still”) An apparatus used for distilling. Alembic

Alkali
Glass Dictionary Term

In glassmaking, a soluble salt consisting mainly of potassium carbonate or sodium carbonate. It is one of the essential ingredients of glass, generally accounting for about 15-20 percent of the batch. The alkali is a flux, which reduces the melting point of the major constituent of glass, silica.

Acid etching
Glass Dictionary Term

The process of etching the surface of glass with hydrofluoric acid. Acid-etched decoration is produced by covering the glass with an acid-resistant substance such as wax, through which the design is scratched. The object is then immersed in hydrofluoric acid, or a mixture of dilute hydrofluoric

Acid polishing
Glass Dictionary Term

The process of making a glossy, polished surface by dipping the object, usually of cut glass, into a mixture of hydrofluoric and sulfuric acids. This technique was developed in the late 19th century. acid polish acid polishing acid polishes

Acid stamping
Glass Dictionary Term

The process of acid-etching a trademark or signature into glass after it has been annealed, using a device that resembles a rubber stamp to apply the acid.

Aeolipile
Glass Dictionary Term

(from Greek) The name sometimes given to globular or pear-shaped objects with a narrow neck and mouth. The function of these objects is uncertain. The word was originally applied to a device, invented in the second century B.C., in which a closed, water-filled vessel, when heated, was made to

Air trap
Glass Dictionary Term

An air-filled void, which may be of almost any shape. Air traps in stems are frequently tearshaped or elongated and spirally twisted. air traps Air lock Diamond air trap Pegging Twist Goblet

Abrasion
Glass Dictionary Term

The technique of grinding shallow decoration with a wheel or some other device. The decorated areas are left unpolished. Queen Tomyris with the Head of Cyrus

Acanthus
Glass Dictionary Term

(1) A group of Mediterranean, Asian, and African plants with large, spiny leaves; hence (2) ornament that resembles the leaves of the species Acanthus spinosus.

Gemmail
Glass Dictionary Term

(French, “enamel gem”) Term coined by the painter Jean Crotti (French, 1870─1958) to describe a technique for layering and adhering pieces of colored glass onto a panel in order to create compositions that are meant to be viewed in front of a light box or illuminated from behind. Plural is gemmaux.

Prismatic cutting
Glass Dictionary Term

A decorative pattern of long, mitered grooves, cut horizontally in straight lines so that the top edges of each groove touch the edges of the adjoining grooves. Prismatic cutting is usually found on the necks of pitchers and decanters.

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